Types of
Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 

Determining Molarity: 


Molarity and Volume:
(M_{1} is the molarity of solution one, which has a volume of V_{1}.
M_{2} is the molarity of solution two, which has a volume of V_{2}.) 
M_{1}V_{1} = M_{2}V_{2} 

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Gas Laws 

The Ideal Gas Law:
(P = pressure in atm, V = volume in liters, n = moles, R = 0.082058 L*atm/mol*K,
T = temperature in Kelvins) 
PV = nRT 

Boyle's Law: 
PV = K 

Charles Law: 
K = V/T 

Derivative of the Ideal Gas Law:
(MW = molecular weight, d = density) 
MW = dRT / P 

Root Mean Square:
(R = 8.3145 J/ K * mol, M = mass of a mole of the gas in kg) 


Rate of Effusion: 


Van der Waal's Equation: 


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Thermochemistry: 

(q = heat at constant temp) 
D E = q + w 

(w = work) 
W = PDV 


DH = DE + D(PV) 

c = heat capacity 


s = specific heat capacity
m = mass of solution 


Relationship between frequency and wavelength
(c = 2.99979 x 10^{8} m/s) 


(n = integer, h = Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10^{34}
J*s) 


Energy per photon: 


Equation for special theory of relativity: 


Calculating Z_{eff} 


de Broglie's equation: 


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Bonding: 

(Q is charge of ions, r shortest distance between centers of
the cations and anions) 


Calculating lattice energy
(k is proportionality constant, Q is charge of ions, r = shortest distance
between centers of the cations and anions) 





Bond Order: 


Formal Charge: 


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Liquids and
Solids: 
ClausiusClapeyron equation
(R = 8.3145 J/K mol) 


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Solutions: 
Molality: 


Psoln: vapor pressure of the solution
Xsolvent: mole fraction of solvent
Psolvent: vapro pressure of pure solvent 


Mass Percent: 


Modified osmotic pressure formula for electrolytes 


Henry's Law
P: partial pressure of gaseous solute
C: concentration of dissolved gas
k: constant 


Boiling point elevation
m: molality
Kb: constant 


Freezing Point Depression
m: molality
Kf: constant 


p: osmotic pressure
M: molarity
R: 0.082616 L*atm/K*mol 


van't Hoff factor 


Modified for electrolyte solutions
m: molality
K: freezing/boiling point constant 



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Chemical
Kinetics: 

Zero Order 
First Order 
Second Order 
Rate Law 



Integrated Rate Law 



Halflife 




General Rate Law: 


Arrhenius Equation
the whole e^(stuff) equation represents the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy
to produce a rxn 


Derived Arrhenius Equation 


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Chemical
Equilibrium: 

Calculating Equilibrium Constant: 


Dn = coefficients of gaseous
products  coefficients gaseous reactants 



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Acids and
Bases: 

Equilibrium Expressions:
HA <> H^{+} + A^{} 











% Dissociation 


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Spontaneity,
Gibbs Free Energy: 










Gibbs Free Energy: 

















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Electrochemistry: 




n = number of moles of electrons transferred 


Nernst Equation
F = faraday's constant
n = number of electrons 

