Glossary:
Ball and stick model a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly
Band model a molecular model for metals in which the electrons are assumed to travel around the metal crystal in molecular orbitals formed from the valence atomic orbitals of the metal atoms
Barometer a device for measuring atmospheric pressure
Base a substance that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution, a proton acceptor
Base dissociation constant (Kb) the equilibrium constant for the reaction of a base with water to produce the conjugate acid and the hydroxide ion
Basic anhydride a metallic oxide that can combine with water to form a base
Basic oxide an ionic oxide that dissolves in water to produce a basic solution
Basic oxygen process a process for producing steel by oxidizing and removing the impurities in iron using a high-pressure blast of oxygen
Battery a group of galvanic cells connected in series
Beer-Lambert Law the quantitative relationship between the absorbance of radiant energy, the concentration of the sample solution, and the length of the path through the sample
Beta particle (b) an electron produced in radioactive decay
Bidentate ligand a ligand that can form two bonds to a metal ion
Bilayer a portion of the cell membrane consisting of phospholipids with their nonpolar tails in the interior and their polar heads interfacing with the polar water molecules
Bimolecular elementary process an elementary process in which two molecules collide to form the transition state
Bimolecular step a reaction involving the collision of two molecules
Binary compound a two element compound
Binding energy the energy required to decompose a nucleus into its component nucleons
Biochemistry the study of chemistry of living systems
Biomolecule a molecule responsible for maintaining and/or reproducing life
Blast furnace a furnace in which iron oxide is reduced to iron metal by using a very strong blast of hot air to produce carbon monoxide from coke, and then using this gas as a reducing agent for the iron
Bond dissociation energy the enthalpy change per mole for the dissociation in the gas phase of a particular bond in a molecule or molecule fragment
Bond energy the energy required to break a given chemical bond
Bond length the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond; the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule is minimal
Bond molecular orbital a molecular orbital in which the electron density is concentrated int he region between two nuclei and in which the electron energy is lower than in two separated atoms
Bond order the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons, divided by two
Bonding molecular orbital an orbital lower in energy than the atomic arbitals of which it is composed
Bonding pair an electron pair found in the space between two atoms
Borane a covalent hydride of boron
Boyle's Law the volume of a given sample of gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure
Breeder reactor a nuclear reactor in which fissionable fuel is produced while the reactor runs
Bronsted-Lowry model a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor
Buffer a solution of a conjugate acid-base pair that has the ability to maintain a nearly constant pH when small amounts of either acid or base are added
Buffer capacity the ability of a buffer solution to absorb protons or hydroxide ions w/o a significant change in pH; determined by the magnitudues of [HA] and [A-] in the solution
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