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Glossary:
Faraday a constant representing the charge of one mole of electrons; 96,485 coulombs
Fat (glyceride) an ester composed of glycerol and fatty acids
Fatty acid a long-chain carboxylic acid
Feedstock the portion of petroleum used as the raw material in a petrochemical plant; it varies from heavy hydrocarbons to light ones
Fermentation the conversion of sugar to ethanol using yeast
Ferromagnetism strong magnetic character exhibited in the absence of a magnetic field
Filtration a method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid
First law of thermodynamics the energy of the universe if constant; same as law of conservation of energy
First order rate equation a rate equation in which the rate is proportional to the first power of the concentration of only one reactant
Fission the process of using a neutron to split a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers
Fixed image a photographic image no longer sensitive to light because the photosensitive silver salt has been removed
Flotation process a method of separating the mineral particles in an ore from the gangue that depends on the greater wettability of the mineral pieces
Fluorescence the emission of light of longer wavelength , usually visible, by a substance when irradiated by light of shorter wavelength, usually ultraviolet
Forbidden energy zone the energy different between the valence valence band and the conduction band of molecular orbitals in a semiconductor
Force the cause of motion; the agency that causes the acceleration of mass
Formal charge the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion derived from a specific set of rules
Formation constant the equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion
Fossil fuel coal, petroleum, or natural gas; consists of carbon-based molecules derived from decomposition of once-living organisms
Frasch process the recovery of sulfur from underground deposits by melting it with hot water and forcing it to the surface by air pressure
Free energy the measure of ability of a system to undergo a spontaneous change
Free radical a species with an unpaired electron
Fractional distillation the separation of the components of a liquid solution by successive distillations in which the vapor becomes richer in more volatile component and the residue richer in the less volatile component
Frequency the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given point in space
Fuel cell a galvanic cell for which the reactants are continuously supplied
Functional group an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon derivatives that contains elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen
Fusion the process of combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
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