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Glossary:
Ideal Gas a gas that obeys the ideal gas law exactly
Ideal Gas Constant The molar gas constant R in the equation of state for an ideal gas, PV = nRT; R
Ideal gas law an equation of state for a gas, where the state of the gas is its condition at a given time; expressed by PV = nRT, where P ~ pressure, V = volume, n = moles of the gas, R = the universal gas constant, and T = absolute temperature This equation expresses behavior approached by real gases at high T and low P
Ideal Solution a solution in which each component behaves independently of the other components
Igneous Rocks Rocks formed by crystallization from a hot, molten mass magma
Immiscible Unable to mix to form a homogeneous mixture
Indicator a substance added to the solution during a titration that changes color when the equivalence point has been reached; a conjugate acid-base pair, of which at least one form is highly colored, used to determine pH or pH changes
Inert pair effect the tendency for the heavier Group 3a elements to exhibit the +I as well as the expected +3 oxidation states, and Group 4a elements to exhibit the +2 as well as the +4 oxidation states
Inhibitor a substance that decreases the rate of a chemical reaction
Inhibition (of combustion) the process whereby a polymer is made flame-retardant by interrupting the cycle of combustion
Initiation Step The first step in a chain reaction mechanism
Inner Transition Metals Elements of the f block of the periodic table
Instability Constant The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a complex ion
Insulator a substance that does not readily conduct energy
Integrated rate law an expression that shows the concentration of a reactant as a function of time
Intensive Property a property characteristic of a substance and independent of the size of the sample under examination
Interhalogen compound a compound formed by the reaction of one halogen with another
Intermediate a species that is neither a reactant nor a product but that is formed and consumed in the reaction sequence
Intermediate Reactant a substance formed during a reaction that undergoes further reaction
Intermolecular forces relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
Interstitial Site a site located between regular lattice positions in a crystal
Internal Energy The total energy of a chemical system
Intrinsic Semiconductor a semiconductor in which electric conduction is characteristic of the substance
Ion an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
Ion exchange (water softening) the process in which an ion-exchange resin removes unwanted ions (for example, Ca 2+ and Mg2+) and replaces them with Na+ ions, which do not interfere with soap and detergent action
Ion pairing a phenomenon occurring in solution when oppositely charged ions aggregate and behave as a single particle
Ion-product constant the equilibrium constant for the autoionization of water; K, = [H+][OH-] at 25T, Kw equals 10 X 10-14
Ion-selective electrode an electrode sensitive to the concentration of a particular ion in solution
Ionic bonding the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic compound (binary) a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form a cation and an anion
Ionic solid a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current
Ionization energy the quantity of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Isoelectronic ions ions containing the same number of electrons
Isomers species with the same formula but different properties
Isotactic chain a polymer chain in which the substituent groups such as CH3 are all arranged on the same side of the chain
Isothermal Process A process taking place at constant temperature
Isotonic solutions solutions having identical osmotic pressures
Isotopes atoms of the same element (the same number of protons) with different numbers of neutrons. They have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers
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