Temperature The measure, on any of several scales, of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a sample of material
Temperature Inversion The abnormal condition of a layer of warm air above cooler surface air
Tempering a process in steel production that fine-tunes the proportions of carbon crystals and cementite by heating to intermediate temperatures followed by rapid cooling
Termination Step A step in a chain reaction mechanism that does not produce an intermediate reactant needed for a propagation step
Termolecular Elementary Process An elementary process in which three molecules collide to form the transition state
Tertiary structure (of a protein) the overall shape of a protein, long and narrow or globular, maintained by different types of intrarnolecular interactions
Tetrahedron A three-dimensional geometric figure having four triangular sides
Theoretical yield the maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
Theory A plausible general principle or group of principles offered in terms of a model to explain phenomena
Thermal Energy The energy in a body that is measured with a thermometer
Thermal pollution the oxygen-depleting effect on lakes and rivers of using water for industrial cooling and returning it to its natural source at a higher temperature
Thermochemical Equation A chemical equation showing the enthalpy change for a reaction involving reactants and products in specified states
Thermodynamics the study of energy and its interconversions
Thermodynamic stability (nuclear) the potential energy of a particular nucleus as compared to the sum of the potential energies of its component protons and neutrons
Thermodynamically Reversible Referring to the condition in which a process can be caused to proceed in the reverse direction by an infinitesimal change of conditions such as temperature, pressure, or concentration
Thermonuclear Reaction A nuclear fusion reaction occurring at extremely high temperatures
Thermoplastic polymer a substance that when molded to a certain shape under appropriate conditions can later be remelted
Thermoset polymer a substance that when molded to a certain shape under pressure and high temperatures cannot be softened again or dissolved
Third law of thermodynamics the entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 K is zero
Titration The measurement of the volume of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with an unknown quantity of another substance
Titration Curve A plot of pH versus the volume of reactant added during an acid-base titration
Torr another name for millimeter of mercury (mm Hg)
Trace elements metals present only in trace amounts in the human body but essential for the action of many enzymes
Transfer RNA (tRNA) a small RNA fragment that finds specific amino acids and attaches them to the protein chain as dictated by the codons in mRNA
Transition Metals Elements of the B groups of the periodic table d block
Transition State The state through which reactants pass during an effective collision and in which bonds simultaneously break and form to produce the products also called activated complex
Transuranium Elements Elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium
Triangular Pyramid A pyramid with a triangular base
Triangular Bipyramid A geometric figure having six triangular faces
Triangular Geometry A term describing a triangular shape or, more specifically, a molecule having a central atom surrounded by three other atoms, all in the same plane
Triple Bond bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
Triple point the point on a phase diagram at which all three states of a substance are present
Triplet An electron energy state in which two electrons are unpaired
Tyndall effect the scattering of light by particles in a suspension

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