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Constants
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Directing Groups
Ortho-Para Directors Meta Directors
Strong activators
  • -NH2 (amino)
  • -OH (hydroxy)

Moderate activators
  • NHCOCH3 (acetamide)
  • OCOCH3 (acetoxy)
  • OR (alkoxy)

Weak activators
  • CH3 (methyl)
  • C6H5 (phenyl)

Strong deactivators
  • -NO2 (nitro)
  • -NR3 (ammonium)
  • -CX3 (trihalomethyl)

Moderate deactivators
  • -CN (cyano or nitrile)
  • -SO3H (sulfonic acid)
  • -CHO (aldehyde)
  • -COR (ketone)
  • -COOH (carboxyl)

Weakly Deactivating Ortho-Para directors

-F -Cl -Br -I
(fluoro) (chloro) (bromo) (iodo)
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