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AP Chemistry Topics:

I. Structure of Matter

  1. Atomic theory and atomic structure
    1. Evidence for atomic theory
    2. Atomic masses and how to determine them experimentally
    3. Atomic number and mass number; iotopes
    4. Electron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals
    5. Periodic trends (atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, oxidation states)
  2. Bonding
    1. Forces
      1. Types: ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding, van der Walls (London dispersion forces)
      2. Relationships to states, structure, and properties of matter
      3. Polarity, electronegativity
    2. Molecular models
      1. Lewis Structures
      2. Valence electrons, hydribization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds
      3. VSEPR
    3. Geometry of molecules and ions; structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes; dipole moments; relation of properties to structure
  3. Nuclear Chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives, and radioactivity; chemical applications

II. States of Matter

  1. Gases
    1. Ideal gas laws
      1. Equation of state for an ideal gas
      2. Partial pressures, Dalton's Law
    2. Kinetic molecular theory
      1. Interpretation of ideal gas laws on teh basis oc this theory
      2. Avogadro's hypothesis and the mole concept
      3. Dependence of kinetic energy of molecules on temperature, Graham's law
      4. Deviations from ideal gas laws
  2. Liquids and solids
    1. Liquids and solids and kinetic molecular theory
    2. Phase diagrams
    3. Changes of state, including critical points and triple points
    4. Structure of solids; lattice energies
  3. Solutions
    1. Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility
    2. Molarity, molality, mole fraction, density
    3. Raoult's law, colligative properties, osmosis
    4. Non-ideal behavior

III. Reactions

  1. Reaction Types
    1. Acid-base reactions; Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lew theories; coordination complexes; amphoterism
    2. Precipitation reactions
    3. Oxidation-reduction reactions
      1. Oxidation state
      2. The role of the electron in oxidation-reduction
      3. Electrochemistry: electrolyric and galvanic cells; Faraday's laws; standard half-cell potentials; Nernst equation; spontaneity of redox reactions
  2. Stoichiometry
    1. Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems: net ionic equations
    2. Balancing of equations, including redox reactions
    3. Mass and volume relations, using the mole concept in finding empirical formulas and limiting reactants
  3. Equilibrium
    1. Dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical; Le Chatelier's principle; equilibrium constants
    2. Quantitative treatment
      1. Equilibrium constants for gaseious reactions: Kp, Kc
      2. Equilibrium constants for reactions in solution
        1. Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH
        2. Solubility product constants and their application to precipitation and the dissolution of slightly soluble compounds
        3. Common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis
  4. Kinetics
    1. Reaction rate
    2. Use of rate laws to determine order of reaction and rate constant from experimental data
    3. Effect of temperature change on rates
    4. Activation energy, catalysts
    5. Reaction mechanisms and rate determining step
  5. Thermodynamics
    1. State functions
    2. First law: enthalpy change; heat of formation; heat of reaction; Hess's law; heats of vaporization and fusion; calorimetry
    3. Second law: entropy; free energy of formation; free energy of reaction; dependence of change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes
    4. Relationships of change in free energy to equilibrium constants and electrode potentials

IV. Descriptive Chemistry

  1. Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions
  2. Relationships in the periodic table : horizontal, vertical and diagonal with examples from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the first series of transition elements
  3. Introduction to organic chemistry: hydrocarbons and functional groups (structure, isomerism, chemical properties).

V. Laboratory

  1. Questions based on experiences and skills students acquire in the laboratory: making observations of chemical reactions and substances; recording data; calculating and interpreting results based on the quantitative data obtained; lab safety; experimental errors

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